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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Nyssa sylvatica
(Black Gum) [Nyssaceae]
(observations are from Snyder, Martin et al., Schorger, Meanley, DeGraaf, Veilleux et al., C. Martin et al., Lucas, Clement, Lance et al., Perry et al., Perry & Thill, Belthoff & Ritchison, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits occasionally used as food] Sch1955; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the Allegheny Mountains & Virginia during winter, fruits have minor to average importance in the diet in Arkansas during winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Mn1956 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on the fruits & sap of this tree] MZN1951 DGr2002; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [fruits of minor importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Strigidae: Megascops asio (Eastern Screech Owl) [this tree provided 1.2% of the roost sites for young owls in Kentucky & it had average preference for this purpose] BR1990; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during the fall, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten rarely] DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten occasionally] MZN1951 DGr2002 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 5-10% of the diet in Missouri during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio during summer] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in Virginia & West Virginia during winter] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [cavities of this tree are often used for roosting sites in Mississippi, cavities of this tree were used 14% of the time as roost sites in South Carolina, cavities of this tree were used 50% of the time as roost sites in Louisiana & this tree was preferred for this purpose] Mrt2011 Lcs2009 Lnc2001, Lasionycteris noctivagans (Silver-haired Bat) [cavities in this tree while living were selected as winter roost sites about 3% of the time in Arkansas] PSC2010, Myotis austroriparius (Southeastern Myotis) [cavities of this tree were used 4% of the time for roost sites in Georgia] Clm2011, Nycticeius humeralis (Evening Bat) [cavities or loose bark of this tree provided 3% of diurnal roost sites for male bats in Arkansas & this tree had below-average preference for this purpose] PT2008, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of this tree was selected 2.7% of the time as a summer roost site by maternal colonies in Indiana & this tree has average preference for this purpose] VWV2003
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