____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Carya spp.
(Hickory) [Juglandaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Beeman & Pelton, Whitaker, Bellrose, DeGraaf, Mager & Nelson, Krynak, and Johnson et al.; some birds feed on nuts that have been cracked open by other animals or from other causes)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the nuts] Blr1942 DGr2002, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on the nuts] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [flowers comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during spring, feeds on the nuts] MZN1951 DGr2002; Certhiidae: Certhia americana (Brown Creeper) [uses these trees for protective cover & uses hickory species with curling bark for nest sites] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on the nuts] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata [feeds on the nuts] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Easter Towhee) [feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on the nuts] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the nuts] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover] DGr2002, Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler) [feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the nuts] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the nuts] DGr2002; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [nuts comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during winter, feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap of young trees in the E USA] MZN1951 DGr2002; Sittidae: Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [nuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies, feeds on the nuts as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [nuts comprise 8.1% of the diet in combination with the nuts of Juglans spp. & Quercus spp., nuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] Wh1966 MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark of saplings comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Michigan during winter] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [nuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Iowa] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [nuts comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [nuts comprise 5-25% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio & Michigan throughout the year] MZN1951, Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [nuts comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) [nuts comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on nuts to a moderate extent] BP1980; Vespertilionidae: Lasiurus borealis (Eastern Red Bat) [foliage of large hickories provide 14.9% of summer roost sites in an urban environment of Illinois during the summer with average preference] MN2001, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [large hickory trees that are either live or dead provide 4.8% of summer roost sites in Ohio by hiding in cavities or behind exfoliating bark, hickories provide 0–2.3% of the roost trees for maternal colonies in central Appalachia] Kr2010 Jhn2009
________________________________________________________________________