____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Rhus glabra
(Smooth Sumac) [Anacardiaceae]
(observations are from Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Martin et al., Blackmore, DeGraaf, Best, and Beal)

Birds
Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002;
Emberizidae: Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [2.3% of nests were supported by this shrub in Illinois] Bst1978; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food, the fruits are eaten frequently] DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on fruits, the fruits are eaten frequently] DGr2002 Be1915; Vireonidae: Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002

Mammals

Bovidae: Capra aegagrus hircus (Domesticated Goat) [this shrub is not eaten] Blk1998; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the twigs & fruits have moderate importance as a food source] SK1973; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 10-25% of the diet in Iowa during winter] MZN1951
________________________________________________________________________