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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Sambucus spp.
(Elderberry) [Caprifoliaceae]
(observations are from Ernst et al. and Martin et al.; Sambucus canadensis and/or Sambucus racemosa are the species to which these observations apply)


Birds
Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [eats fruits] MZN1951, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during summer & fall] MZN1951, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Icteridae: Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Canada] MZN1951; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Parulidae: Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during summer] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Maine during summer, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Wisconsin] MZN1951, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer] MZN1951; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951, Sphyrapicus varius  (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951; Sittidae: Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer] MZN1951, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Tyrannidae: Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Vireonidae: Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951, Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951

Mammals
Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 0.5-5% of the diet in Michigan & Iowa during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Michigan] MZN1951

Turtles

Emydidae: Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994; Kinosternidae: Kinosternon subrubrum (Eastern Mud Turtle) [feeds on the fruits] EBL1994
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