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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Tsuga canadensis
(Eastern Hemlock) [Pinaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Schorger, Martin et al., DeGraaf, Veilleux et al., and Lowe)

Birds
Accipitridae: Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) [uses this tree as a nesting site & uses its leafy twigs to construct nests] DGr2002; Columbidae:
Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds rarely used as a source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on the seeds & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill) [feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during winter, feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Paridae: Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [seeds comprise 2-5% of diet in NE USA during winter, feeds on the seeds] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga caerulescens (Black-throated Blue Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Setophaga castanea (Bay-breasted Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Setophaga fusca (Blackburnian Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Setophaga magnolia (Magnolia Warber) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Setophaga virens (Black-throated Green Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on needle-like leaves & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [uses this tree for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002

Mammals

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs & foliage comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York during winter, twigs & foliage comprise 5-10% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Wisconsin & Minnesota during winter & spring] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats seeds] Hm1941; Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [this tree comprises 10-25% of the diet in NE USA & Vermont during winter] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat) [the foliage of this tree was selected for summer roost sites in New Hampshire] Vlx2009, Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Bat) [cavities & exfoliating bark of this tree were used as fall roost sites in Nova Scotia] Lw2012
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