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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Solanum spp.
(Nightshade) [Solanaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al.)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in New York during summer] MZN1951; Cardinalidae:
Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Icteridae: Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Wisconsin] MZN1951, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951

Mammals
Mephitidae: Mephitis mephitis  (Striped Skunk) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa] MZN1951
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