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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Vitis spp.
(Grape, Wild Grape) [Vitaceae]
(observations are from Snyder, Martin et al., Schorger, Beeman & Pelton, Sokala & Kirkpatrick, Blackmore, Bellrose, Bennetts, Meanley, DeGraaf, Hooper & Hamel, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [the fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet during the winter, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 Blr1942; 
Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody vines as nesting habitat & uses strips of bark as construction material for nests] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 5-25% of the diet in NE USA & SE USA during summer & fall & winter, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody vines for protective cover & nesting habitat] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used as a source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on fruits and/or seeds] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Cuculidae: Coccyzus americanus (Yellow-billed Cuckoo) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits & uses these woody vines for nesting habitat & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] MZN1951 DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [uses these woody vines for nesting habitat when they climb shrubs or small trees in semi-open areas & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002; Icteridae: Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Canada, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Icterus spurius (Orchard Oriole) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody vines for protective cover & preferred nesting habitat & uses strips of bark as nest construction material, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during summer & fall & winter, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody vines for protective cover & preferred nesting habitat & uses strips of bark as nest construction material] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody vines for protective cover & preferred nesting habitat & uses strips of bark as nest construction material] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the Northeast & NE Prairies during fall & winter, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat) [feeds on the fruits & uses these woody vines for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Mniotilta varia (Black-and-white Warbler) [uses these woody vines as nesting habitat when they sprawl across the ground in woodlands & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Seiurus aurocapilla (Ovenbird) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of vegetative  food] DGr2002, Setophaga caerulescens (Black-throated Blue Warbler) [uses these woody vines as nesting habitat when they climb over shrubs in woodlands & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Setophaga cerulea (Cerulean Warbler) [uses these woody vines for nesting habitat when they climb trees in woodlands & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Setophaga citrina (Hooded Warbler) [uses these woody vines for nesting habitat when they climb over shrubs in woodlands & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Setophaga pensylvanica (Chestnut-sided Warbler) [uses these woody vines as nesting habitat when they climb over shrubs in woodlands & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on fruits & uses these woody vines for nesting habitat & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] MZN1951 DGr2002, Setophaga ruticilla (American Redstart) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of vegetative food & uses these woody vines as nesting habitat when they climb shrubs or trees in woodlands & thickets & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Setophaga tigrina (Cape May Warbler) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these woody vines as nesting habitat when they climb trees & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Vermivora bachmanii (Bachman's Warbler) [these woody vines occasionally provided support and/or concealment for the nests of this possibly extinct bird] HH1977, Vermivora cyanoptera (Blue-winged Warbler) [uses these woody vines as nesting habitat when they sprawl across the ground & uses strips of bark from these woody vines as construction material for nests] DGr2002; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus   (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits comprise 2-25% of the diet in the NE USA & Virginia Alleghenies & Pennsylvania & Ohio during fall & winter, feeds on fruits in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, uses fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 2-25% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Virginia & Allegheny Mountains & Missouri during summer & fall & winter, fruits have minor to moderate importance in the diet in Arkansas throughout the year, uses fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Mn1956 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer, fall, & winter, fruits & seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in New York during spring, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during summer, fall, & winter, uses fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during summer & fall & winter, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis  (Carolina Parakeet) [fruits of moderate importance as a source of food] Snd2004, Myiopsitta monachus (Monk Parakeet) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [feeds on fruits & uses these woody vines for protective cover & nesting habitat & uses strips of bark as construction material for nests] DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 Dv2004, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during the fall, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall & winter, fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during summer & fall, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food, feeds on the fruits frequently] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern USA, feeds on fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on fruits & uses these woody vines as preferred nesting habitat] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Eastern Prairies during summer, feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [feeds on fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Vireo philadelphicus (Philadelphia Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002 Dv2004

Mammals
Bovidae: Capra aegagrus hircus (Domesticated Goat) [these woody vines are eaten] Blk1998; Canidae: Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & SE USA] MZN1951, Vulpes vulpes fulvus (American Red Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Massachusetts] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the leaves have moderate importance as a food source] SK1973; Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [fruits & stems comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Michigan during winter] MZN1951; Mephitidae: Mephitis mephitis  (Striped Skunk) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951, Spilogale putorius interrupta (Prairie Spotted Skunk) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Iowa during summer & fall] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter, fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on fruits to a moderate extent, fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Virginia & West Virginia during the fall & winter] BP1980 MZN1951

Turtles
Chelydridae: Macrochelys temminckii (Alligator Snapping Turtle) [probably feeds on fruits from sprawling vines] EBL1994; Emydidae: Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) [feeds on fruits] EBL1994
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