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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Vitis vulpina
(Frost Grape) [Vitaceae]
( observations are from Schorger and Malmborg & Wilson)

Birds

Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits of this & other grape species often used as a source of food] Sch1955; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-100% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-100% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 15% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 21-100% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (Starling) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 20-77% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 6% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-53% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 28-80% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 17-45% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-20% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 58-81% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988
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