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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Crataegus spp.
(Hawthorn) [Rosaceae]
(observations are from Snyder, Martin et al., Haugen, Bennetts, Meanley, DeGraaf, Ludewig & Bowyer, Carter, Homan et al., Myers et al., and Beal)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for nest sites] DGr2002; Emberizidae:
Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses these small trees for protective cover] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [these trees were used 7.5% of the time as nest sites in North Dakota and they had average preference for this purpose] Hmn1996; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits & buds & leaves comprise 0.5-10% of the diet in the Northeast & Maine & Ohio & the Virginia Alleghenies & Pennsylvania  during fall & winter, feeds on fruits in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [the fruits have average importance in the diet in Arkansas during the winter & spring, feeds on the fruits] Mn1956 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on the tree sap] DGr2002; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [fruits of minor importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits are eaten rarely] Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits & uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Empidonax traillii (Willow Flycatcher) [uses these small trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002

Mammals
Canidae: Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [these small trees provide 9.3% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs & fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York during winter, these small trees provide 17.3% of the winter diet in Maine, 4% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of these small trees in New York] MZN1951 LdBw1985 Myr2004; Cricetidae: Microtus pinetorum (Woodland Vole) [feeds on fruits] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa during winter, saplings are occasionally used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] MZN1951; Mephitidae: Mephitis mephitis  (Striped Skunk) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa during fall] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in Minnesota during summer] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [dead or dying hawthorn trees (snags) & cavities of live hawthorn trees provide 5% of roost sites in southern Illinois] Crt2003
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