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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Zizania aquatica
(Annual Wild Rice) [Poaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Schorger, and Bellrose)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [the seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet during summer, fall, & winter] MZN1951, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during autumn & winter] MZN1951, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during autumn] MZN1951, 
Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter] MZN1951, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [the seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall] MZN1951, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Anas rubripes (Black Duck) [seeds comprises 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya americana (Redhead) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya marila (Greater Scaup) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Aythya valisineria (Canvasback) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951, Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during winter] MZN1951; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds often used as a source of food] Sch1955; Emberizidae: Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951, Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Bobolink) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951, Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA & Canada during winter] MZN1951; Rallidae: Fulica americana (Common Coot) [the seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter] MZN1951, Porzana carolina (Sora) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall] MZN1951, Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during summer, fall, & spring] MZN1951
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