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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Populus spp.
(Poplar, Cottonwood, Aspen) [Salicaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., and Bennetts)

Birds

Fringillidae:
Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [buds of aspen comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during spring] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [buds of aspen comprise 10-50% of the diet in the Northeast & Ohio & Maine during fall & winter & spring, feeds on buds in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] MZN1951 Bnn1900

Mammals
Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [wood & bark of these trees comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Cervidae:
Alces americanus (American Moose) [twigs comprise 5-10% of the diet from Maine to Michigan during winter, twigs & foliage comprise 10-25% of the diet in Isle Royale of Michigan] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Maine & Pennsylvania, twigs comprise 5-25% of the diet in New York & Wisconsin & Minnesota during winter] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Microtus ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on the bark of saplings] MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on the bark of saplings] MZN1951; Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [these trees comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951

Turtles
Trionychidae: Apalone mutica (Smooth Softshell) [feeds on floating seeds] EBL1994
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