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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Pinus strobus
(White Pine) [Pinaceae]
(observations are from Lewis, Schorger, Martin et al., Haugen, Ludewig & Bowyer, Mager & Nelson, and McGuire et al.)

Birds

Accipitridae: Accipiter cooperii  (Cooper's Hawk) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [
feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Certhiidae: Certhia americana (Brown Creeper) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Columbidae: Columba livia (Rock Pigeon) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds rarely used as food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of major importance as a source of food, feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting habitat] Lws1993 DGr2002; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Haemorhous mexicanus (House Finch) [feeds on seeds & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on seeds & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Mimidae: Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on seeds & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & cavities for nesting sites] DGr2002, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & cavities in this tree for nesting sites] DGr2002, Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & cavities for nesting sites] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Setophaga dominica (Yellow-throated Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Setophaga fusca (Blackburnian Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Setophaga magnolia (Magnolia Warbler) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on seeds & needles as preferred sources of food & uses this tree for protective cover] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Picidae: Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [feeds on seeds & uses cavities in this tree for nesting sites] DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [feeds on seeds as a preferred food source & uses cavities in this tree for nesting sites] DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [feeds on seeds & uses cavities in this tree for nesting sites] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on tree sap & uses cavities in this tree for nesting sites] DGr2002; Sittidae: Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of foof & uses this tree for protective cover & cavities in the tree for nesting sites] DGr2002, Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses this tree for protective cover & cavities in the tree for nesting sites] DGr2002; Troglodytidae: Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Turdidae: Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs & foliage comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York during winter, this tree provides 2.2% of the winter diet in Maine] MZN1951 LdBw1985; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [the saplings of this tree are occasionally used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] Hgn1942; Vespertilionidae: Lasionycteris noctivagans (Silver-haired Bat) [this tree was used for roost sites during migration] McG2012, Lasiurus borealis (Eastern Red Bat) [White Pine trees did not provide summer roost sites in an urban environment of Illinois during the summer] MN2001
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