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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Helianthus spp.
(Sunflower) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Lewis and Martin et al.)

Birds

Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of moderate importance as a source of food,
seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Prairies during summer & fall & winter] Lws1993 MZN1951; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during fall & winter] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during winter] MZN1951, Melospiza lincolnii (Lincoln Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Eastern Prairies during fall] MZN1951, Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Southern Prairies during winter & spring] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during fall & winter] MZN1951, Zonotrichia querula (Harris Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951, Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Eastern Prairie region during winter] MZN1951, Sturnella neglecta (Western Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in central & western USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the NE Prairies during fall & winter] MZN1951, Perdix perdix (Hungarian Partridge) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northern Plains] MZN1951; Sittidae: Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies] MZN1951

Mammals
Cricetidae: Microtus ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on these plants] MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on these plants] MZN1951; Geomyidae: Geomys bursarius (Plains Pocket Gopher) [feeds on these plants] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Prairie region during fall] MZN1951
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