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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Picea spp.
(Spruce) [Pinaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al. and DeGraaf)

Birds

Anatidae: Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover] DGr2003; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristatus (Blue Jay) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the USA during spring & summer & fall, feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] MZN1951 DGr2002, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall & winter, feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] MZN1951 DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] MZN1951 DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on seeds as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover] DGr2002; Mimidae: Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Paridae: Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover & cavities for nest sites] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga castanea (Bay-breasted Warbler) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Setophaga fusca (Blackburnian Warbler) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Setophaga magnolia (Magnolia Warbler) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Setophaga striata (Blackpoll Warbler) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Setophaga tigrina (Cape May Warbler) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Setophaga virens (Black-throated Green Warbler) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Picidae: Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover & cavities for nest sites] DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover & cavities for nest sites] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in E USA, feeds on tree sap & uses these trees for protective cover & cavities for nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002; Regulidae: Regulus calendula (Ruby-crowned Kinglet) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Regulus satrapa (Golden-crowned Kinglet) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002; Sittidae: Sitta canadensis (Red-breasted Nuthatch) [feeds on seeds as a preferred food source & uses these trees for protective cover & cavities for nest sites] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [feeds on seeds & uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [feeds on seeds] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [uses these trees for protective cover & nesting habitat] DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Wisconsin & Minnesota] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter] MZN1951, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during winter] MZN1951
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