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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Betula alleghaniensis
(Yellow Birch) [Betulaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Bennetts, and DeGraaf)

Birds
Accipitridae: Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002;  Fringillidae: Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [feeds on the seeds & buds as preferred sources of food] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on buds & catkins in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, feeds on the seeds & buds as preferred sources of food] Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Picidae: Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on the tree sap & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002

Mammals

Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [the inner bark of this tree comprises 5-10% of the diet in Vermont during winter] MZN1951
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