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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Vallisneria americana
(Water Celery) [Hydrocharitaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., Lagler, Pearse, and Bellrose)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [foliage & seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter] MZN1951, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [this plant comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [foliage & seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during spring & fall, feeds on foliage & seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, 
Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [this plant comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [foliage & seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [foliage & seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall & winter, feeds on this plant] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya americana (Redhead) [foliage & seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter, feeds on this plant] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [seeds & foliage comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during winter] MZN1951, Aythya marila (Greater Scaup) [seeds & foliage comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter, feeds on foliage & rootstalks] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya valisineria (Canvasback) [seeds & foliage comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on this plant] MZN1951 Blr1942, Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead) [foliage & seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during winter] MZN1951, Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye) [this plant comprises 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter, feeds on this plant] MZN1951 Blr1942, Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan) [feeds on this plant] Blr1942, Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck) [foliage & seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during fall & winter, feeds on this plant] MZN1951 Blr1942; Rallidae: Fulica americana (Common Coot) [this plant comprises 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer, fall, & winter] MZN1951

Turtles
Chelydridae: Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [feeds on plant] EBL1994 Lg1943; Emydidae: Chrysemys picta (Painted Turtle) [feeds on plant] EBL1994 Lg1943, Graptemys ouachitensis (Ouachita Map Turtle) [feeds on plant] EBL1994, Pseudemys concinna (River Cooter) [feeds on plant] EBL1994; 
Kinosternidae: Sternotherus odoratus (Stinkpot) [feeds on plant] EBL1994

Fishes
Centrarchidae: Lepomis gibbosus (Pumpkinseed) [this plant comprises 10% of the diet] Prs1918
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