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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Populus tremuloides
(Quaking Aspen) [Salicaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Hamerstrom & Blake, Romain et al., Lowe, Kalcounis & Hecker, and Agosta)

Birds

Cardinalidae: Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [feeds on buds] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch), Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on buds] DGr2002; Icteridae: Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [feeds on buds & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Paridae: Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [buds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Wisconsin during winter & spring, buds & catkins are preferred sources of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on catkins] DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [buds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Wisconsin during summer] MZN1951; Picidae: Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on the tree sap & uses this tree for protective cover & nesting sites in cavities] DGr2002

Mammals
Cricetidae:
Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the branches & bark have minor value as a food source] HB1939; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [buds & leaves found in scats 28% of the time in Ontario] ROA2013; Vespertilionidae: Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat) [maternity colonies used this tree for roost sites in Saskatchewan] Ag2002, Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Bat) [cavities & exfoliating bark of this tree were used as fall roost sites in Nova Scotia, primarily cavities of this tree were used as roost sites in Saskatchewan] Lw2012 KH1996
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