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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Salix spp.
(Willow) [Salicaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., Hamerstrom & Blake, Lagler, Romain et al., Bennetts, and DeGraaf)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on the catkins & uses willows for protective cover] DGr2002, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on the catkins & uses willows for protective cover] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [feeds on the buds] DGr2002, Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on the buds] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on the buds as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [uses willows for protective cover] DGr2002; Phasianidae:
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [buds & leaves comprise 2-10% of the diet in the NE USA & Maine during winter & spring, feeds on buds in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, buds & twigs are a preferred source of food & willows are used for protective cover] MZN1951 Bnn1900 DGr2002

Mammals
Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [wood & bark of these trees comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA, the wood & bark of these trees are a food source in Missouri] MZN1951; Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [foliage & twigs comprise 10-25% of the diet from Maine to Michigan during the summer & winter, foliage & twigs comprise 5-10% of the diet in Isle Royale of Michigan] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in New York during winter, twigs & foliage comprise 2-10% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Wisconsin & Minnesota during winter & spring] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Microtus ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on the foliage & catkins] MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on the foliage & catkins] MZN1951, Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the bark has minor value as a food source, these trees or shrubs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] HB1939 MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Connecticut & Michigan & Iowa during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [buds & flowers comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Ohio & Michigan] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [buds & leaves & catkins found in scats 17% of the time in Ontario] ROA2013

Turtles
Chelydridae: 
Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [feeds on leaves] Lg1943; Emydidae: Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) [feeds on leaves] EBL1994 Lg1943

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