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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Parthenocissus quinquefolia
(Virginia Creeper) [Vitaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Malmborg & Wilson, and DeGraaf)

Birds
Cardinalidae: Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter, the fruits are preferred a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Hirundinidae: Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in coastal areas of eastern USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-100% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-2% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during summer & fall, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGR2002; Odonotophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga castanea (Bay-breasted Warbler) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 8% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MW1988 DGr2002; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits & uses this woody vine for protective cover & nest sites when it grows along the walls of buildings] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies during summer & fall & winter, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-73% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during winter, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during summer & fall & winter, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during fall & winter, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Sittidae: Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 23-80% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-48% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-57% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MW1988 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-52% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-58% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [the fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA and the Eastern Prairies during fall & winter & spring, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 6-42% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Eastern USA during summer & fall, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during fall & winter, the fruits are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the leaves have major importance as a food source] SK1973
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