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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Rhus spp.
(Sumac) [Anacardiaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Schorger, and DeGraaf)

Birds

Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during the winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits rarely used as a source of food] Sch1955; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the E USA & Prairie region during fall & winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Corvus ossifragus (Fish Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer & fall, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the NE USA & NE Prairies during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Setophaga pinus (Pine Warbler) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits comprise 0.5-10% of the diet in the NE USA & Virginia Alleghenies & Maine & Wisconsin & Ohio during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the NE USA & New York during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northern Plains] MZN1951; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the E USA & Eastern Prairies, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 2-10% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [foliage & twigs of these shrubs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Isle Royale of Michigan] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in Maine, twigs comprise 2-10% of the diet in New York & Missouri during winter] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Connecticut, bark comprises 25-50% of the diet in Michigan during winter] MZN1951
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