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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Persicaria spp.
(Smartweed) [Polygonaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Ernst et al., Hamerstrom & Blake, Whitaker, Lagler, Andersen & Fleharty, and Bellrose)

Birds

Alaudidae: Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA throughout the year] MZN1951; Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [the seeds and/or seedheads comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & spring] MZN1951, Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [the seedheads & flowerheads comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall & winter, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [the seedheads comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [the seedheads comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Southeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [the seedheads comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [the seeds and/or seedheads comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [the seedheads comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Anas rubripes  (Black Duck) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Anas strepera (Gadwall) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup) [the seedheads and/or seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Aythya americana (Redhead) [the seeds and/or seedheads comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during the spring] MZN1951, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [seeds and/or seedheads comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Bucephala albeola (Bufflehead) [the seedheads and/or seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye) [the seedheads and/or seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast} MZN1951, Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck) [seedheads and/or seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall & winter, seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951, Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during summer & fall] MZN1951, Piranga rubra (Summer Tanager) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Ammodramus henslowii (Henslow's Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Ammodramus savannarum (Grasshopper Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall] MZN1951, Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951, Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer & fall] MZN1951, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in NE USA & Southern Prairies during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in E USA during winter & spring] MZN1951, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Pooecetes gramineus (Vesper Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during summer & fall & spring] MZN1951, Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in N USA during winter & spring] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Bobolink) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & SE USA during spring & summer & fall] MZN1951, Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Motacillicae: Anthus rubescens (American Pipit) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE Illinois during summer] MZN1951; Rallidae: Coturnicops noveboracensis (Yellow Rail) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the East during winter] MZN1951, Fulica americana (Common Coot) [the seedheads and/or seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Porzana carolina (Sora) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall] MZN1951, Rallus elegans (King Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Rallus limicola (Virginia Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5–2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Scolopacidae: Calidris melanotos (Pectoral Sandpiper) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the United States] MZN1951, Gallinago delicata (Wilson's Snipe) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast throughout the year] MZN1951, Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951, Limosa haemastica (Hudsonian Godwit) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in northern USA and Canada] MZN1951

Mammals
Cricetidae:
Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the lower stems have minor value as a food source] HB1939, Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [the seeds comprise 0.9% of the diet by volume in combination with the seeds of Polygonum spp.] Wh1966; Muridae: Mus musculus (House Mouse) [the seeds comprise 1.4% of the diet by volume in combination with the seeds of Polygonum spp.] Wh1966; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Poliocitellus franklinii (Franklin's Ground Squirrel) [feeds on the seeds of these plants in Kansas] AF1967, Tamias minimus (Least Chipmunk) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Minnesota during late summer & early fall] MZN1951

Turtles
Chelydridae: Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994; Emydidae: Chrysemys picta (Painted Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994 Lg1943, Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994, Trachemys scripta (Slider) [feeds on these plants] EBL1994
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