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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Ilex glabra
(Inkberry) [Aquifoliaceae]
(observations are from DeGraaf, Hooper & Hamel, and Beal)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Mimidae: Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Parulidae:
Vermivora bachmanii (Bachman's Warbler) [this shrub often provided support and/or concealment for the nests of this possibly extinct bird] HH1977; Phasianidae: Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on the fruits, the fruits are eaten frequently] DGr2002 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002
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