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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Aralia nudicaulis
(Wild Sarsaparilla) [Araliaceae]
(observations are from Romain et al. and Mosnier et al.)

Mammals

Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [fruits occur in the diet about 32% of the time in Ontario, fruits are a major dietary item in Quebec during the summer & fall] ROA2013 MOC2008
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