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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Ulmus spp.
(Elm) [Ulmaceae]
(observation are from Martin et al., Schorger, Ernst et al., Carter, and Shimp & Shimp)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [the seeds & samaras comprise 5-10% of the diet in New York during summer] MZN1951; Cardinalidae:
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [flowers comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during spring] MZN1951; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds often used as a source of food] Sch1955; Emberizidae: Spizella pallida (Clay-colored Sparrow) [buds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during spring] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [buds & seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during spring] MZN1951, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Paridae: Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA & the Prairie region] MZN1951; Picidae: Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in the East] MZN1951

Mammals
Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [the wood & bark of these trees are a source of food in Missouri] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York during winter] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark of saplings comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Iowa during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [seeds & buds & flowers comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio & Michigan during winter & spring & summer] MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Lasiurus cinereus (Hoary Bat) [uses the foliage of these trees for roost sites] SS1982, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [dead or dying elm trees (snags) & cavities of live elm trees provide 26.3% of roost sites in southern Illinois] Crt2003, Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) [dead or dying elm trees (snags) provide 17% of roost sites for female bats in southern Illinois] Crt2003

Turtles
Trionychidae: Apalone mutica (Smooth Softshell) [feeds on fallen seeds] EBL1994
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