Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Solidago spp.
(Goldenrod) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Cole & Batzli, Hamerstrom & Blake, Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Buech, Yeatter, DeVore et al., and Myers et al.)


Cardinalidae: Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [feeds on the seeds] Dv2004; Emberizidae:
Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter] MZN1951; Parulidae: Setophaga kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) [these plants provided protective cover & they were located within 1 meter of the nest sites 20% of the time in Michigan] Bch1980; Phasianidae: Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [leaves comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE Illinois during summer, flowerheads & leaves comprise 7.5% of the diet for adults & 2.9% of the diet for juveniles in Illinois] MZN1951 Yt1943

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [these plants have major importance as a food source, foliage comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Pennsylvania, 1% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of an unidentified species of goldenrod in New York] SK1973 MZN1951 Myr2004; Cricetidae: Microtous ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on these plants] CB1979 MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus  (Meadow Vole) [feeds on these plants] MZN1951, Microtus pinetorum (Woodland Vole) [feeds on rootstocks] MZN1951, Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the stems have minor value as a food source] HB1939; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [foliage comprises 2-5% of the diet in Connecticut during summer & fall] MZN1951