____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Solidago spp.
(Goldenrod) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Cole & Batzli, Hamerstrom & Blake, and Sotala & Kirkpatrick)

Birds

Emberizidae:
Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [leaves comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE Illinois during summer] MZN1951

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [these plants have major importance as a food source, foliage comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Pennsylvania] SK1973 MZN1951; Cricetidae: Microtous ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on these plants] CB1979 MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus  (Meadow Vole) [feeds on these plants] MZN1951, Microtus pinetorum (Woodland Vole) [feeds on rootstocks] MZN1951, Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the stems have minor value as a food source] HB1939; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [foliage comprises 2-5% of the diet in Connecticut during summer & fall] MZN1951
________________________________________________________________________