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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Quercus spp.
(Oak) [Fagaceae]
(observations are from Snyder, Martin et al., Schorger, Ernst et al., Beeman & Pelton, Hamerstrom & Blake, Whitaker, Bellrose, Meanley, DeGraaf, Mager & Nelson, Krynak, Johnson et al., Veilleux et al., Lucas, Bergeson, and Agosta; some birds feed on acorns after they have been split open by other animals or from other causes)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [acorns comprise 2-5% of the diet during fall in the Northeast, acorns are a preferred source of food, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 Blr1942 DGr2002, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on acorns] DGr2002, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [acorns comprises 2-5% of the diet during fall & winter in the Northeast, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002, Anas rubripes (Black Duck) [feeds on acorns] Blr1942, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [feeds on acorns] Blr1942; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on acorns] DGr2002,
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [flowers comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies, feeds on flowers & uses these trees for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [uses these trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [acorns were an important source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on acorns] DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [acorns comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in eastern USA & the Prairie region throughout the year, feeds on acorns as a preferred source of food & uses these trees for protective cover & nest sites] MZN1951 DGr2002, Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [acorns comprise 25-50% of the diet in eastern USA throughout the year, acorns are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Emberizidae: Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [acorns comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Canada, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002, Icterus galbula (Baltimore Oriole) [uses these trees for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [acorns comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter & spring, acorns are preferred as a source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [feeds on acorns] DGr2002; Mimidae: Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [acorns comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring, feeds on acorns as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [acorns comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during winter, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [acorns & buds comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the Northeast & NE Prairies during fall & winter, acorns & buds are preferred sources of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [acorns & buds comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the Northeast & Ohio during winter, acorns & buds comprise 5-25% of the diet in the Virginia Alleghenies & Pennsylvania during fall & winter, acorns & buds are a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [acorns comprise 5-50% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Virginia & the Allegheny Mountains & Missouri throughout the year, acorns have minor to major importance in the diet in Arkansas throughout the year, acorns & buds are preferred sources of food] MZN1951 Mn1956 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [acorns comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring, feeds on on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [acorns & buds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northern Plains during fall & winter] MZN1951; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [acorns comprise 10-25% of the diet in the East during fall & winter & spring, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [acorns comprise 10-25% of the diet in the East during fall & winter & spring, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [feeds on acorns] DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in the East, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [acorns of moderate importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Sittidae: Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [acorns comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies during fall & winter, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on acorns] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [uses these trees for nest sites] DGr2002; Troglodytidae: Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren) [acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on acorns] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Canidae: Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [the wood & bark of these trees are a source of food in Missouri] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [foliage & twigs & acorns comprise 0.5-10% of the diet in Maine & New York & Pennsylvania & Wisconsin & Minnesota during fall & winter, foliage & twigs & acorns comprise 25-50% of the diet in Missouri during fall & winter, foliage & twigs & acorns comprise 10-25% of the diet in the North Carolina mountains throughout the year] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Microtus ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on acorns] MZN1951, Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [feeds on acorns] MZN1951, Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [acorns have minor value as a food source, acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] HB1939 MZN1951, Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [acorns comprise 8.1% of the diet by volume in combination with the nuts of Carya spp. & Juglans spp., acorns comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] Wh1966 MZN1951; Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [acorns comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark of saplings comprises 0.5-5% of the diet in Connecticut & Michigan & Iowa during winter] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [acorns comprise 25-50% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrel) [acorns comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [acorns & flowers comprise 25-50% of the diet in E USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [acorns comprise 10-50% of the diet in NE USA & Ohio & Michigan throughout the year] MZN1951, Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [acorns comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) [acorns comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on acorns to a major extent, acorns comprise 25-50% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Virginia & West Virginia during the fall & winter] BP1980 MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [did not use these trees for roost sites in South Carolina] Lcs2009, Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat) [maternity colonies used these trees for roost sites in Maryland] Ag2002, Lasiurus borealis (Eastern Red Bat) [foliage of large oaks provides 37.3% of summer roost sites in an urban environment of Illinois during the summer with average preference] MN2001, Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Bat) [exfoliating bark & cavities of these trees were used as summer roost sites in Illinois] Brg2012, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [large oak trees that are usually dead provide 71.4% of summer roost sites in Ohio by hiding in cavities or behind exfoliating bark & these trees were preferred for this purpose over others, oaks provide 8–18.2% of the roost trees for maternal colonies in central Appalachia & these trees have below-average preference for this purpose] Kr2010 Jhn2009, Perimyotis subflavus (Tricolored Bat) [dead or live foliage of these trees was selected 27% of the time as summer roost sites by maternal colonies in Indiana & these trees are highly preferred for this purpose] VWV2003

Turtles
Trionychidae: Apalone spinifera (Spiny Softshell) [feeds on acorns] EBL1994
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