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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Polygonum spp.
(Knotweed) [Polygonaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al. and Whitaker)

Birds

Calcaridae: Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies] MZN1951, Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Prairies during summer] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during winter & spring] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during winter & spring] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Zonotrichia querula (Harris Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during winter & spring] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA throughout the year, seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Prairie region] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the NE Prairies during fall & winter] MZN1951, Perdix perdix (Hungarian Partridge) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northern Plains during fall & winter] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northern Plains throughout the year, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Wisconsin during summer] MZN1951; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951

Mammals
Cricetidae:
Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [the seeds comprise 0.9% of the diet by volume in combination with the seeds of Persicaria spp., seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall] Wh1966 MZN1951; Muridae: Mus musculus (House Mouse) [the seeds comprise 1.4% of the diet by volume in combination with the seeds of Persicaria spp.] Wh1966; Sciuridae: Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Prairie region during spring & fall, seeds comprise 1.1% of the diet by volume & 2.2% by frequency in Indiana] MZN1951 Wh1972

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