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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Betula spp.
(Birch) [Betulaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Schorger, and Mosnier et al.)

Birds

Columbidae: 
Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds occasionally used as food] Sch1955; Emberizidae: Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in N USA during winter] MZN1951, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [buds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Paridae: Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [seeds comprise 2-5% of diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [flowers & buds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during winter, flowers & buds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Maine & Pennsylvania & Wisconsin during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [flowers & buds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northern Plains during winter] MZN1951; Picidae: Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in the East] MZN1951

Mammals
Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [wood & bark of these trees comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [twigs comprise 5-10% of the diet from Maine to Michigan during winter] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in New York & Wisconsin & Minnesota during winter] MZN1951; Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [these trees comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [seeds are a minor dietary item in Quebec] MOC2008
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