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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Ilex verticillata
(Common Winterberry) [Aquifoliaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Schorger, Martin et al., and DeGraaf)

Birds
Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Columbidae:
Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used as food] Sch1955; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [feeds on the fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [feeds on the fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover & nesting sites] DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002

Mammals

Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941;
Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [bark comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Connecticut] MZN1951
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