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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Sambucus racemosa
(Red-berried Elder) [Caprifoliaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Schorger, Bennetts, and DeGraaf)

Birds
Cardinalidae: Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Columbidae:
Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits often used as a source of food] Sch1955; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on fruits of this shrub in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] Bnn1900; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & this shrub is used for protective cover] DGr2002, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & this shrub is used for protective cover] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Turdus migratorius [the fruits are a preferred source of food & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Empidonax alnorum (Alder Flycatcher) [feeds on fruits & uses this shrub for protective cover] DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002

Mammals

Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941
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