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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Elaeagnus umbellata
(Autumn Olive) [Elaeagnaceae]
(observations are from DeGraaf)

Birds

Anatidae: Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [the fruits are a preferred source of food and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on fruits and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on fruits & this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [feeds on fruits & this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [feeds on fruits & this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [feeds on fruits & this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Hirundinidae: Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Icteridae: Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002; Paridae: Poecile atricapillus  (Black-capped Chickadee) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on fruits and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on fruits and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on fruits and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on fruits and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [feeds on fruits] DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [the fruits are a preferred source of food] DGR2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [the fruits are a preferred source of food and this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002
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