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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Carpinus caroliniana
(Musclewood) [Corylaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Bennetts, and DeGraaf; this small tree is also called American Hornbeam)

Birds

Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [feeds on nutlets] DGr2002, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on nutlets] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [the nutlets are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Coccothraustes vespertinus (Evening Grosbeak) [the nutlets are a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [the nutlets are a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on nutlets & catkins & buds] DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [nutlets comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA, feeds on nutlets] MZN1951 DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [nutlets & catkins & buds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast during winter, feeds on buds in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, nutlets & catkins & buds are preferred sources of food] MZN1951 Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on nutlets] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on nutlets & catkins & buds] DGr2002; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [this small tree provides protective cover] DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in New York during winter] MZN1951; Sciurdidae: Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [nutlets comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall] MZN1951

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