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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Cirsium spp.
(Thistle) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Lindroth & Batzli, Hamerstrom & Blake, and Martin et al.)

Birds
Emberizidae:
Spizella pallida (Clay-colored Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during summer] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during winter] MZN1951

Mammals

Cricetidae: Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [shoots of this plant were eaten, its preference as a food source varied from low to high] LB1984,
Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the stems have minor value as a food source] HB1939
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