Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Cirsium spp.
(Thistle) [Asteraceae]
(observations are from Lindroth & Batzli, Hamerstrom & Blake, Martin et al., and DeVore et al.)

Cardinalidae: Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [feeds on the seeds] Dv2004; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [feeds on the seeds] Dv2004,
Spizella pallida (Clay-colored Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during summer] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on the seeds] Dv2004, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during winter, feeds on the seeds] MZN1951 Dv2004


Cricetidae: Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole) [shoots of this plant were eaten, its preference as a food source varied from low to high] LB1984,
Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat) [the stems have minor value as a food source] HB1939