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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Phleum pratense
(Timothy) [Poaceae]
(observations are from Whitaker & Mumford, Martin et al., Cole & Batzli, Romain et al., Bellrose, and Myers et al.)

Birds
Anatidae: Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on this plant] Blr1942; Calcaridae: Calcarius pictus (Smith's Longspur) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Illinois during spring] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall & winter] MZN1951, Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Pooecetes gramineus (Vesper Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during spring] MZN1951, Zonotrichia querula (Harris Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in N USA during winter & spring] MZN1951, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951

Mammals

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [5% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of this plant in New York] Myr2004; Cricetidae: Microtous ochrogaster (Prairie Vole) [feeds on seeds and/or foliage] CB1979; Dipodidae: Zapus hudsonius (Meadow Jumping Mouse) [seeds of this grass comprise 3.7% of the diet volume] WM1970; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [foliage of this grass has lesser importance to the diet in Ontario] ROA2013
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