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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Setaria spp.
(Bristlegrass) [Poaceae]
(observations are from Whitaker & Mumford, Lewis, Martin et al., Schorger, Houtcooper, and Whitaker; also called Foxtail Grass)

Birds
Alaudidae: Eremophila alpestris (Horned Lark) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in eastern USA throughout the year] MZN1951; Anatidae:
Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [these grasses comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during the spring] MZN1951, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [these grasses comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Calcaridae: Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Calcarius pictus (Smith's Longspur) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in Illinois during spring] MZN1951, Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in SE USA during summer & fall & winter] MZN1951, Passerina caerulea (Blue Grosbeak) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during fall, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during summer] MZN1951, Passerina cyanea (Indigo Bunting) [eats seeds] MZN1951, Spiza americana (Dickcissel) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Prairie region during summer] MZN1951; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds often used as a source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of major importance as a food source, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast & Prairies throughout the year] Lws1993 MZN1951; Emberizidae: Ammodramus henslowii (Henslow's Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951, Ammodramus savannarum (Grasshopper Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer & fall] MZN1951, Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Prairie region during summer & fall] MZN1951, Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter & spring, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Prairie region during fall & winter] MZN1951, Melospiza georgiana (Swamp Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Melospiza lincolnii (Lincoln Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Eastern Prairies during spring & fall] MZN1951, Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-25% of the diet in NE USA & Southern Prairies throughout the year] MZN1951, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter] MZN1951, Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Eastern Towhee) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Pooecetes gramineus (Vesper Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA during summer & fall & spring] MZN1951, Spizella pallida (Clay-colored Sparrow) [seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during spring] MZN1951, Spizella passerina (Chipping Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA & the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-50% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during spring & fall, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during winter] MZN1951, Zonotrichia querula (Harris Sparrow) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Eastern Prairies during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in N USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA throughout the year, seeds comprise 25-50% of the diet in the Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951, Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Bobolink) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall, seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951, Euphagus carolinus  (Rusty Blackbird) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA & Canada & Prairie region during fall & winter & spring] MZN1951, Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA & SE USA throughout the year] MZN1951, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & the Prairie region] MZN1951, Sturnella magna (Eastern Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Eastern Prairie region during winter] MZN1951, Sturnella neglecta (Western Meadowlark) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in central & western USA during fall & winter] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA & Prairie region throughout the year] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during summer & fall & winter, seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE Prairies during fall & winter] MZN1951, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Pennsylvania & Missouri, seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Allegheny Mountains during summer] MZN1951, Perdix perdix (Hungarian Partridge) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter, seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northern Plains during fall & winter] MZN1951, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northern Plains during summer & fall, seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE Illinois & Wisconsin during summer] MZN1951; Rallidae: Coturnicops noveboracensis (Yellow Rail) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during winter] MZN1951, Rallus elegans (King Rail) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951; Scolopacidae: Calidris melanotos (Pectoral Sandpiper) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the United States] MZN1951, Gallinago delicata (Wilson's Snipe) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951, Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951

Mammals

Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [seeds comprise 3.3% of the diet by volume] Wh1966, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [moderate amounts of seeds are consumed, seeds comprise 1.6% of the diet by volume] Ht1978 Wh1966; Dipodidae: Zapus hudsonius (Meadow Jumping Mouse) [seeds of these grasses comprise 10.0% of the diet volume] WM1970; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [foliage comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Connecticut] MZN1951; Muridae: Mus musculus (House Mouse) [large amounts of seeds are consumed, seeds comprise 20.2% of the diet by volume] Ht1978 Wh1966; Sciuridae: Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Prairie region during summer & fall] MZN1951
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