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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Echinochloa spp.
(Barnyard Grass) [Poaceae]
(observations are from Whitaker & Mumford, Lewis, Martin et al., Whitaker, Bellrose, and Havera; these grasses are also referred to as Wild Millet)

Birds
Anatidae: Anas acuta (Northern Pintail) [these plants comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during the fall & winter, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas americana (American Wigeon) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during the spring, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942,
Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) [these plants comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Southeast during winter, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [seeds comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during winter, feeds on seeds in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999, Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal) [these plants comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [these plants comprise 5-10% of the diet during fall & winter & spring in the Northeast, feeds on seeds in Illinois & elsewhere] MZN1951 Blr1942 Hv1999, Anas rubripes (Black Duck) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Anas strepera (Gadwall) [feeds on seeds] Blr1942, Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck) [these plants comprise 0.5%-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on seeds] MZN1951 Blr1942, Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) [feeds on these plants] Blr1942; Calcaridae: Calcarius pictus (Smith's Longspur) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Illinois during spring] MZN1951; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [seeds of major importance as a source of food] Lws1993; Emberizidae: Melospiza lincolnii (Lincoln Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & spring] MZN1951; Icteridae: Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Passeridae: Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Rallidae: Porzana carolina (Sora) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & spring] MZN1951; Scolopacidae: Gallinago delicata (Wilson's Snipe) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast] MZN1951

Mammals

Cricetidae: Peromyscus maniculatus
(Deer Mouse) [seeds comprise 1.2% of the diet by volume] Wh1966; Dipodidae: Zapus hudsonius (Meadow Jumping Mouse) [seeds of these grasses comprise 0.6% of the diet volume] WM1970; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [foliage comprises 0.5-2% of the diet in Connecticut] MZN1951; Muridae: Mus musculus (House Mouse) [seeds comprise 1.8% of the diet by volume] Wh1966
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