Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Plantago spp.
(Plantain) [Plantaginaceae]
(observations are from Schwartz and Martin et al.)


Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Ammodramus savannarum (Grasshopper Sparrow) [seeds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [leaves eaten during spring for 1 month & seeds eaten during fall for 1 month] Swz1945

Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [foliage comprises 5-10% of the diet in Connecticut & Michigan throughout the year] MZN1951