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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Smilax spp.
(Greenbrier) [Smilacaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Haugen, and Bennetts; some species in this genus are referred to as Carrion Flower)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Emberizidae: Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during spring & summer] MZN1951, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [fruits & leaves comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during winter, fruits & leaves comprise 10-25% of the diet in the Virgnia Alleghenies & Ohio during winter, feeds on fruits in Ontario & Wisconsin during fall & winter] MZN1951 Bnn1900, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits & leaves comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Allegheny Mountains, fruits & leaves comprise 2-5% of the diet in Virginia during winter] MZN1951, Tympanuchus cupido (Greater Prairie Chicken) [fruits, buds, & leaves comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northern Plains] MZN1951; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter & spring] MZN1951, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Prairies during spring] MZN1951, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951

Mammals
Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the leaves & stems have major importance as a food source, stems comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri, leaves & stems comprise 5-10% of the diet in the North Carolina mountains throughout the year] SK1973 MZN1951; Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri] MZN1951; Leporidae: Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail) [the woody branches are occasionally used as a source of food in Michigan during winter] Hgn1942; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Michigan] MZN1951; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in Virginia & West Virginia during winter] MZN1951
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