Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Ulmus rubra
(Slippery Elm) [Ulmaceae]
(observations are from Schorger, Mager & Nelson, and Best)


Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds of this & other elms were often used as a source of food] Sch1955; Emberizidae: Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [8.5% of nests were supported by saplings of this tree in Illinois] Bst1978

Vespertilionidae: Lasiurus borealis (Eastern Red Bat) [larger slippery elms provide 1.5% of summer roost trees in an urban environment of Illinois during the summer with below-average preference] MN2001