____________


Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

____________


Ulmus rubra
(Slippery Elm) [Ulmaceae]
(observations are from Schorger and Mager & Nelson)

Birds

Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [seeds of this & other elms were often used as a source of food] Sch1955

Mammals
Vespertilionidae: Lasiurus borealis (Eastern Red Bat) [larger slippery elms provide 1.5% of summer roost trees in an urban environment of Illinois during the summer with below-average preference] MN2001
________________________________________________________________________