Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Prunus americana
(American Plum) [Rosaceae]
(observations are from Sotala & Kirkpatrick, Homan et al., and Noyce & Coy)

Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [this shrubby tree was used 3.5% of the time as a nest site in North Dakota and it had average preference for this purpose] Hmn1996


Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the fruits have minor importance as a food source] SK1973; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on the fruits in Minnesota] NC1990