Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Rubus occidentalis
(Black Raspberry) [Rosaceae]
(observations are from Blackmore, Best, and Myers et al.)

Emberizidae: Spizella pusilla (Field Sparrow) [14% of nests were supported by this woody plant in Illinois] Bst1978


Bovidae: Capra aegagrus hircus (Domesticated Goat) [this woody plant is eaten] Blk1998; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [3% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of this woody plant in New York] Myr2004