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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Alnus spp.
(Alder) [Betulaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Ernst et al., Martin et al., and DeGraaf)

Birds
Anatidae: Anas americana (American Wigeon) [feeds on the seeds & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002, Anas crecca carolinensis (Green-winged Teal) [feeds on the seeds & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002, Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) [feeds on the seeds & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Cardinalidae: Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [feeds on the seeds & uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Columbidae: Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Melospiza melodia (Song Sparrow) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Spizelloides arborea (American Tree Sparrow) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Fringillidae:
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll) [seeds comprise 10-25% of the diet in N USA during fall & winter, feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002, Spinus pinus (Pine Siskin) [feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter, feeds on the seeds as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [feeds on the seeds] DGr2002; Parulidae: Cardellina pusilla (Wilson's Warbler) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Setophaga petechia (Yellow Warbler) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on buds in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, feeds on the seeds & buds] Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [feeds on the seeds & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the seeds & uses these shrubs for protective cover] DGr2002; Scolopacidae: Scolopax minor (American Woodcock) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nests on the ground in alder thickets] DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Empidonax alnorum (Alder Flycatcher) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002, Empidonax traillii (Willow Flycatcher) [uses these shrubs for protective cover & nest sites] DGr2002

Mammals

Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [wood & bark of these trees comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA, the wood & bark of these trees are a source of food in Missouri] MZN1951; Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [twigs comprise 5-10% of the diet from Maine to Michigan during winter, twigs & foliage comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Isle Royale of Michigan] MZN1951, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 2-5% of the diet in Wisconsin & Minnesota during winter] MZN1951; Dipodidae: Napaeozapus insignis (Woodland Jumping Mouse) [eats seeds] Hm1941

Turtles
Emydidae: Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) [feeds on fallen leaves] EBL1994
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