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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Phytolacca americana
(Pokeweed) [Phytolaccaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Lewis, Martin et al., Schorger, Malmborg & Wilson, DeVore et al., and Beal)

Birds
Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall] MZN1951; Cardinalidae: Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies] MZN1951; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits were an important source of food] Sch1955, Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove) [fruits of major importance as a source of food, fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & winter & spring] Lws1993 MZN1951; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer & fall, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 Dv2004, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in SE USA during summer & fall] MZN1951; Parulidae: Icteria virens (Yellow-breasted Chat) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, 1.7% of bird stomachs contained fruits from this plant] MZN1951 Be1915b, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits, 2.9% of bird stomachs contained fruits from this plant] MZN1951 Dv2004 Be1915b, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits, 1.8% of bird stomachs contained fruits from this plant] MZN1951 Dv2004 Be1915b, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits, 2.2% of bird stomachs contained fruits from this plant] MZN1951 Dv2004 Be1915b, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [feeds on the fruits] Dv2004, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits are eaten frequently] MZN1951 Be1915, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits of this herbaceous plant comprised 0-13% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, the fruits are eaten frequently] MZN1951 MW1988 Be1915; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Eastern USA] MZN1951, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in eastern USA] MZN1951; Vireonidae: Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 Dv2004

Mammals

Canidae: 
Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats fruits and/or seeds] Hm1941; Didelphidae: Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Missouri] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951

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