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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Juniperus virginiana
(Eastern Red Cedar) [Cupressaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Schorger, and Sotala & Kirkpatrick)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 25-50% of the diet in NE USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [fruits rarely used as food] Sch1955; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during fall] MZN1951, Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951, Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Hirundinidae: Tachycineta bicolor (Tree Swallow) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in inland areas of eastern USA during summer & fall] MZN1951; Mimidae: Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during winter] MZN1951; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East & Eastern Prairies] MZN1951, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in the East, fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the East during fall & winter] MZN1951; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951

Mammals
Castoridae: Castor canadensis (American Beaver) [the wood & bark of this tree are a source of food in Missouri] MZN1951; Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [leaves & twigs have minor importance as a food source during winter, leaves & twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Missouri] SK1973 MZN1951
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