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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Lindera benzoin
(Spicebush) [Lauraceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Malmborg & Wilson, and DeGraaf)

Birds

Cardinalidae: Cardinalis cardinalis (Northern Cardinal) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Mimidae:
Dumetella carolinensis (Catbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits of this shrub comprised 0-18% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the Northeast, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus  (Northern Flicker) [the fruits of this shrub comprises 0-1% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MW1988 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during summer, the fruits of this shrub comprised 94% of the total diet in fruit in Illinois, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, the fruits of this shrub comprised 0-8% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Catharus minimus (Grey-cheeked Thrush) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, the fruits of this shrub comprised 4-15% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush) [the fruits of this shrub comprised 27-71% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois] MW1988, Hylocichla mustelina (Wood Thrush) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall, the fruits of this shrub comprised 39-83% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Turdus migratorius (American Robin) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Tyrannus tyrannus (Eastern Kingbird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002
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