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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Toxicodendron radicans
(Poison Ivy) [Anacardiaceae]
(observations are from Martin et al., Sokala & Kirkpatrick, Malmborg & Wilson, Bennetts, Meanley, DeGraaf, and Ludewig & Bowyer)

Birds

Bombycillidae: Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Corvidae: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Emberizidae: Junco hyemalis (Dark-eyed Junco) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Passerella iliaca (Fox Sparrow) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during winter, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Mimidae: Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird) [the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-24% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MW1988 DGr2002, Mimus polyglottos (Northern Mockingbird) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Toxostoma rufum (Brown Thrasher) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Odontophoridae: Colinus virginianus (Bobwhite Quail) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in the NE USA & NE Prairies during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Poecile atricapillus (Black-capped Chickadee) [fruits comprise 2-5% of diet in NE USA during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in SE USA during winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Parulidae: Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during winter, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 77% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Setophaga tigrina (Cape May Warbler) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on fruits in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits] Bnn1900 DGr2002, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [fruits comprise 0.5-5% of the diet in the Allegheny Mountains & Virginia during winter, fruits have minor to moderate importance in the diet in Arkansas during fall & winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 Mn1956 DGr2002, Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002; Picidae: Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) [fruits comprise 10-25% of the diet in E USA & Eastern Prairies during fall & winter, the fruits of this woody vine comprised 0-6% of the total diet in fruits in Illinois, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 MW1988 DGr2002, Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002, Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA & Eastern Prairies throughout the year, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in E USA & Eastern Prairies during fall & winter & spring, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Regulidae: Regulus calendula (Ruby-crowned Kinglet) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002; Sturnidae: Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) [fruits comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter, feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] MZN1951 DGr2002; Troglodytidae: Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Turdidae: Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush) [feeds on the fruits as a preferred source of food] DGr2002, Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Tyrannidae: Sayornis phoebe (Eastern Phoebe) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002; Vireonidae: Vireo gilvus (Warbling Vireo) [feeds on the fruits] DGr2002, Vireo griseus (White-eyed Vireo) [fruits comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA, feeds on the fruits] MZN1951 DGr2002

Mammals
Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [this woody vine provides 3.0% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [the leaves have major importance as a food source, this woody vine provides 6.6% of the winter diet in Maine] SK1973 LdBw1985
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