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Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:

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Fagus grandifolia
(American Beech) [Fagaceae]
(observations are from Hamilton, Snyder, Martin et al., Schorger, Beeman & Pelton, Whitaker, Bennetts, Ludewig & Bowyer, Johnson et al., C. Martin et al., Agosta, Steele, Newell & Rodewald, Heckscher)

Birds
Anatidae: Aix sponsa (Wood Duck) [beechnuts comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Northeast during fall & spring] MZN1951; Cardinalidae:
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak) [flowers comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA & Northern Prairies during spring] MZN1951, Piranga olivacea (Scarlet Tanager) [about 6% of nest sites were located on this tree in Ohio] NR2011; Columbidae: Ectopistes migratorius (Passenger Pigeon) [beechnuts were the most important source of food] Sch1955; Corvidae: Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay) [beechnuts comprise 2-5% of the diet in eastern USA during fall, winter, & spring] MZN1951; Fringillidae: Haemorhous purpureus (Purple Finch) buds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] MZN1951; Icteridae: Euphagus carolinus  (Rusty Blackbird) [beechnuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA & Canada] MZN1951, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle) [beechnuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Paridae: Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse) [beechnuts comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during winter] MZN1951; Parulidae: Dendroica caerulescens (Black-throated Blue Warbler) [small specimens of this tree were selected for 11.9% of nest sites in New Hampshire and this tree had below-average preference for this purpose] St1993, Setophaga cerulea (Cerulean Warbler) [about 1% of nest sites were located on this tree in Ohio] NR2011; Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [beechnuts & buds comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in Maine, beechnuts & buds comprise 5-10% of the diet in Ohio during winter, feeds on beechnuts in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] MZN1951 Bnn1900, Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey) [beechnuts comprise 2-5% of the diet in Virginia during winter] MZN1951; Picidae: Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker) [beechnuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in the East] MZN1951, Sphyrapicus varius (Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) [drills holes in wood & sucks sap in the East] MZN1951; Polioptilidae: Polioptila caerulea (Blue-gray Gnatcatcher) [did not use this tree for nest sites in Ohio] NR2011; Psittacidae: Conuropsis carolinensis (Carolina Parakeet) [beechnuts of moderate importance as a source of food] Snd2004; Sittidae: Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch) [beechnuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA and eastern Prairies] MZN1951; Turdidae: Catharus fuscescens (Veery) [saplings of this tree were selected 3% of the time for the nest sites of this bird in Delaware] Hck2004; Tyrannidae: Contopus virens (Eastern Wood-pewee) [did not use this tree for nest sites in Ohio] NR2011; Vireonidae: Vireo flavifrons (Yellow-throated Vireo) [did not use this tree for nest sites in Ohio] NR2011

Mammals

Canidae: 
Urocyon cineroargenteus (Gray Fox) [beechnuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in SE USA] MZN1951; Cervidae: Alces americanus (American Moose) [this tree provides 11.4% of the winter diet in Maine] LdBw1985, Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [twigs comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in New York during winter, this tree provides 17.9% of the winter diet in Maine] MZN1951 LdBw1985; Cricetidae: Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse) [eats nuts of this tree, nuts comprise 1.0% of the diet by volume, nuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in E USA] Hm1941 Wh1966 MZN1951, Peromyscus maniculatus (Deer Mouse) [eats nuts of this tree] Hm1941; Erethizontidae: Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) [the nuts & bark of this tree comprise 2-5% of the diet in NE USA, the nuts & bark of this tree comprise 10-25% of the diet in Vermont during winter] MZN1951; Procyonidae: Procyon lotor (Raccoon) [beechnuts comprise 0.5-2% of the diet in NE USA] MZN1951; Sciuridae: Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrel) [beechnuts comprise 10-25% of the diet in NE USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Sciurus carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel) [beechnuts comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951, Sciurus niger (Fox Squirrel) [beechnuts comprise 2-10% of the diet in NE USA & Michigan during fall & winter, beechnuts comprise 10-25% of the diet in Ohio throughout the year] MZN1951, Tamias striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) [beechnuts comprise 5-10% of the diet in NE USA during fall & spring] MZN1951, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) [beechnuts comprise 5-10% of the diet in E USA during fall & winter] MZN1951 Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on nuts to a minor extent, beechnuts comprise 25-50% of the diet in Pennsylvania during the fall] BP1980 MZN1951; Vespertilionidae: Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat) [cavities of this tree are used for roosting sites in Mississippi] Mrt2011, Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat) [maternity colonies used this tree for roost sites in Michigan] Ag2002, Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) [this tree was not used by maternal colonies for summer roost sites in central Appalachia] Jhn2009 
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