Relationships of
Vertebrate Animals
to this Plant:


Rubus idaeus strigosus
(American Red Raspberry) [Rosaceae]
(observations are from Bennetts, Noyce & Coy, and Myers et al.; Rubus strigosus is a scientific synonym of this woody plant)


Phasianidae: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse) [feeds on leaves in Wisconsin & Ontario during fall & winter] Bnn1900

Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer) [3% of deer droppings contained viable seeds of this woody plant in New York] Myr2004; Ursidae: Ursus americanus (American Black Bear) [feeds on the fruits in Minnesota] NC1990