Flower-Visiting Insects
of White Vervain


Verbena urticifolia (White Vervain)
(Bees usually suck nectar and less often collect pollen; beetle activity is unspecified; other insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Krombein et al., Graenicher, and Williams as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn, Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada texana sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys sayi sn fq; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn, Megachile mendica sn; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn fq, Augochlora purus purus sn, Augochlorella aurata sn fq, Augochlorella striata sn fq, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn fq, Halictus ligatus sn fq, Halictus rubicunda sn fq, Lasioglossum nelumbonis sn, Lasioglossum pectoralis sn, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes nudus (Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn cp fq (Rb, Kr), Calliopsis nebraskensis (Kr), Calliopsis verbenae sn cp fq icp olg

Wasps
Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Eremnophila aureonotata icp; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta

Flies
Syrphidae: Pseudodoros clavatus (Rb, Gr), Sphaerophoria contiqua, Syritta pipiens fq, Toxomerus geminatus; Empididae: Empis clausa; Bombyliidae: Chrysanthrax cypris, Exoprosopa fascipennis, Systropus macer, Toxophora amphitea; Conopidae: Stylogaster neglecta, Thecophora occidensis, Zodion obliquefasicatum; Tachinidae: Archytas analis, Clausicella geniculata fq, Copecrypta ruficauda fq, Gymnoclytia occidua, Phasia purpurascens, Spallanzania hesperidarum; Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos; Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas fq, Strymon melinus; Pieridae: Eurema lisa, Pieris rapae, Pontia protodice

Beetles
Cantharidae:
Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Wms)


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