Flower-Visiting Insects
of Stiff Goldenrod


Solidago rigida (Stiff Goldenrod)
(Also referred to as Oligoneuron rigidum; bees collect pollen or suck nectar, flies & beetles feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson, Reed, Evans, Petersen, Moure & Hurd, Hilty, Krombein et al., and Williams as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae):
Apis mellifera sn (Rb, Ev, Re); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis (Re), Bombus auricomus (Re), Bombus bimaculatus (Ev, Pt), Bombus griseocallis (Re), Bombus impatiens sn cp (Rb, Ev, Re), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq (Rb), Bombus vagans (Re), Psithyrus ashtoni sn (Re), Psithyrus variabilis sn (Rb); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla (Ev); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes dentiventris sn cp fq (Rb, Re), Melissodes illata (Re), Melissodes nivea sn (Rb), Melissodes rustica (Re), Svastra obliqua obliqua sn cp (Rb); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica (H); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn cp (Rb), Megachile latimanus sn (Rb, Re), Megachile mendica (Ev), Megachile relativa (Re); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades variolosa variolosa (Kr)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Doufoureinae): Doufourea marginata marginata (MH); Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon virescens (Ev), Augochlorella striata (Re), Halictus confusus (Re), Halictus ligatus (Re), Halictus rubicunda (Ev, MH), Lasioglossum sp. (Re), Lasioglossum coriaceus (Re), Lasioglossum pectoralis (Ev), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus (Ev, Re), Lasioglossum rohweri (Re), Lasioglossum versatus sn (Rb); Halictidae (Nomiinae): Nomia nortoni nortoni (MH, Kr), Nomia triangulifera (MH); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes sp. sn (Re); Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes americana sn cp (Rb), Colletes compactus sn (Rb), Colletes simulans armata cp olg (Ev, Re); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis (Ev), Hylaeus mesillae (Re); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena sp. (Re), Andrena asteris (Re, Kr), Andrena helianthi (Re, Kr), Andrena hirticincta cp olg (Re), Andrena nubecula cp olg (Re), Andrena placata cp olg (Re), Andrena simplex cp olg (Re, Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis coloradensis (Kr), Heterosarus nebrascensis (Re)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius rufifemur (Rb), Lestica confluentus (Rb); Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris compacta (Rb), Cerceris prominens (Rb), Philanthus ventilabris (Re); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila procera (Rb), Ammophila urnaria (Re), Prionyx atrata (Rb), Prionyx thomae (Rb), Sphex ichneumonea (Re), Sphex pensylvanica (Re); Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta (Re); Vespidae: Polistes annularis (Rb), Polistes fuscata (Rb, Re); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus fq (Rb), Ancistrocerus antilope (Rb), Ancistrocerus catskill (Re), Euodynerus annulatus (Rb), Euodynerus foraminatus (Rb, Re), Leionotus scrophulariae (Rb,MS); Pompilidae: Ageniella conflicta (Rb); Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata (Re)

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis barda (Re), Eristalis dimidiatus (Re), Eristalis stipator (Re), Eristalis tenax (Re), Helophilus fasciatus (Re), Paragus bicolor sn (Rb), Paragus tibialis fp np (Rb), Sphaerophoria sp. (Re), Sphaerophoria contiqua sn (Rb), Syritta sp. (Re), Syritta pipiens sn (Rb), Toxomerus geminatus (Re), Toxomerus marginatus (Re); Bombyliidae: Sparnopolius confusus sn fq (Rb); Conopidae: Stylogaster biannulata sn (Rb); Tachinidae: Cylindromyia binotata (Re), Gymnoclytia occidua sn (Rb), Linnaemya comta sn (Rb), Spallanzania hesperidarum sn (Rb); Sarcophagidae: Amobia aurifrons sn (Rb), Ravinia anxia sn (Rb); Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria sn (Rb); Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina sn (Rb)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus (H, Re), Junonia coenia (H), Limenitis archippus (Rb); Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas (Rb), Lycaena phlaeas americana (Rb); Pieridae: Colias sp. (Re), Colias eurytheme (H), Pieris rapae (H)

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Polites origenes (H), Polites peckius (Rb, H)

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (H, Re); Noctuidae: Caenurgina erechtea (Rb), Helicoverpa zea (H)

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn fq (Rb, H, Re, Wms); Cerambycidae: Megacyllene robiniae (Re); Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica sp. (Re), Diabrotica longicornis fp np fq (Rb), Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp np (Rb), Luperaltica nigripalpis (Re); Meloidae: Epicauta pennsylvanica fp np fq (Rb, Re)

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris lineolatus (Re); Pentatomidae: Euschistus sp. (Re); Phymatidae: Phymata pennsylvanica prd (Re); Reduviidae: Sinea diadema prd (Re)

Homoptera
Dictyopharidae: Scolops sp. (Re)


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